Frequently Asked Questions About Upaya

What is Upaya?

  • Upaya is a nonprofit organization that builds businesses to create jobs and improve the quality of life for people living in extreme poverty.
  • Upaya provides business development support and investment capital to entrepreneurs with the potential to create or improve needed jobs.
  • So far, Upaya's efforts have been focused on India, which has over 256 million households living in extreme poverty.

How is Upaya Structured?

How does Upaya Raise Funds?

  • Upaya has three main fundraising channels:
    1. Institutional giving – the organization regularly submits grant requests to large and small charitable foundations.
    2. Online giving – Please visit
    3. Offline giving – Upaya is able to accept cash and checks and appreciated securities from individual supporters. All checks should be made out to “Upaya Social Ventures" and mailed to: Upaya Social Ventures, P.O. Box 9603, Seattle, WA 98109. If contributions are to be restricted to a specific project, please include the name of the project in the memo field. For gifts of appreciated securities, please contact for more information.

What is Upaya’s Model?

  • Upaya pursues its goal of creating employment for the poorest of the poor by accelerating the development of early stage social enterprises with consulting and investment support.

How does Upaya do Consulting OUTSIDE ITS PROGram partners?

  • Consulting engagements are pursued and accepted based on their fit with Upaya’s skills and ability to help the organization reach its goals.
  • The team is very mindful of the social benefit generated by the work and the capacity an engagement would build within the Upaya team.

How does Upaya Track Social Metrics?

  • Just as accounting systems allow an entrepreneur to make decisions about the financial health of the organization, well designed social performance systems with regularly collected data allow an enterprise to keep moving toward its stated social goals.
  • Collecting and analyzing social outcomes is vital for the long-term success of a social business, as it gives managers the ability to adjust their operations to improve the quantity and quality of social outcomes.
  • Without information about how a business affects the lives of its employees or customers, it is impossible to verify that change is happening or make the types of adjustments that would increase those positive outcomes.
  • Poverty scorecards are survey tools that offer a snapshot of a household’s level of impoverishment, ideally consisting of 10-25 questions carefully selected for their relevance to the local community. Upaya customizes scorecards by blending 15-20 industry-accepted metrics with additional categories selected for their relevance to an entrepreneur’s stated goals. A typical scorecard combines standardized observable indicators about a household’s asset base (e.g. is the house a temporary mud structure or made of more permanent cement, do they have access to electricity, and do they have basic household appliances collectively worth more than $100?) with interview responses from the family (e.g. number of meals the family eats, the makeup of those meals, if the family has access to healthcare, and if they have access to basic financial services). Upaya helps the entrepreneur track the changes to these indicators over time.

Where is Upaya?


  • Upaya’s approach emerged from the Sachi Shenoy and Sriram Gutta's work on the Sorenson/ Unitus Ultra Poor Initiative (UPI) between 2008-11. It was during this project that the team validated the connection between job creation and effective programs for combating extreme poverty.
  • In several pilots targeting people in extreme poverty across different Indian states, the team saw men and women passing up free food, healthcare, and housing to go work in menial labor jobs. When asked, they said the earnings – no matter how meager – were more important than the handouts. Once the team altered the pilots to lead with an income-generating activity, program beneficiaries were able to make demonstrable progress out of poverty.
  • With the new model, the team saw how increased and regular income allowed beneficiaries to cover their own basic food, housing and healthcare costs. Employment was more effective than handouts in meeting their needs. In addition, the new models had significantly lower per-beneficiary costs and led the team to believe a business-led extreme poverty intervention was possible.
  • In conjunction with the conclusion of the UPI, Sachi and Sriram began work in October 2010 on what would become Upaya Social Ventures, a new organization focused on creating jobs and improving income for the poorest of the poor. Fellow Unitus alum Steve Schwartz got involved in December 2010 to help set up U.S. nonprofit operations.